In 1976, Dr. Thomasina Borkman penned a now-classic paper depicting two ways of knowing: professional knowledge and experiential knowledge. In distinguishing the two, she noted the following: “In contrast to professional information, experiential knowledge is (1) pragmatic rather than theoretical or scientific, (2) oriented to here-and-now action rather than to the long-term development and systematic(……)

Some years ago, a noted research scientist was invited to speak at a local community forum on the subject of addiction. The presentation to more than one hundred interested citizens consisted of a sweeping overview of modern scientific studies on addiction and its clinical treatment. In the question and answer session that followed the presentation,(……)