Multiple pathways and styles of addiction recovery are evident in the worldwide growth of secular, spiritual, and religious recovery mutual aid organizations as well as in the growing recognition of people achieving recovery outside of the frameworks of professional treatment and peer recovery support communities. Four U.S.-based organizations—Alcoholics Anonymous (181 countries), Narcotics Anonymous (132 countries),(……)

Recent surges in opioid addiction and opioid overdose deaths in the United States have triggered considerable public and professional alarm, including its emergence as an issue in the 2016 Presidential campaign. Public health responses to the rise in opioid-related problems have focused primarily on: 1) suppression of illicit opioid markets, 2) public education on opioid(……)

Investigations into the efficacy of Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12-Step programs have advanced from what was once little more than popular and clinical folklore. Scientific studies have progressed through the stage of weak methodological designs to quite sophisticated studies measuring both the effects of 12-Step mutual aid participation on long-term recovery outcomes and the most(……)

For the past 35 years, the United States has been involved in what many consider to be failed efforts to incarcerate its way out of its addiction problem.  The U.S. prison population has grown from 198,061 in 1971 to more than 1.5 million in 2013. More than 600,000 incarcerated men and women are released back(……)

In 2006, Ernie Kurtz and I co-authored an essay entitled Varieties of Recovery Experience that was published in the International Journal of Self-Help and Self-Care. It was an early attempt to map the growing pathways and styles of long-term addiction recovery.  The proposition that there are multiple pathways of recovery has since become a central mantra(……)

Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is too often relegated to the status of stepchild of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).  NA’s unique history, culture, and distinctiveness are routinely obscured within references to “AA and other Twelve Step programs.”  For the past several years, Chris Budnick, Boyd Pickard and I have been conducting research on the history of NA, and(……)