Multiple pathways and styles of addiction recovery are evident in the worldwide growth of secular, spiritual, and religious recovery mutual aid organizations as well as in the growing recognition of people achieving recovery outside of the frameworks of professional treatment and peer recovery support communities. Four U.S.-based organizations—Alcoholics Anonymous (181 countries), Narcotics Anonymous (132 countries),(……)

Recent surges in opioid addiction and opioid overdose deaths in the United States have triggered considerable public and professional alarm, including its emergence as an issue in the 2016 Presidential campaign. Public health responses to the rise in opioid-related problems have focused primarily on: 1) suppression of illicit opioid markets, 2) public education on opioid(……)