Dr. Ernie Kurtz and I, during the last years of his life, spent considerable time exploring the varieties of addiction recovery experience, including variations in the stages and styles of addiction recovery. For me, this exploration of stages and styles began in 1974 when I heard John Wallace present a paper at the Alcohol and(……)

The addiction recovery experience has been sliced and diced in all manner of categories: secular, spiritual, and religious; natural recovery, peer-assisted, and treatment-assisted; and abstinence-based, moderation-based, and medication-assisted, to name just a few.  Recovery achieved through any of these frameworks is often referred to as a pathway of recovery.  The growing consensus that there are(……)

The principle of “equifinality,” which states that the same developmental endpoint can be achieved by many different means, applies well to addiction recovery. A single pathway model of recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUDs)—hit bottom, treatment, lifelong affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and sustained abstinence—has given way to multiple pathway models. We now know from(……)